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2013年3月 一覧
動詞 - Verb - 2013年3月13日 AM12:10

2013年3月13日

動詞 - Verb

■動詞を目的語として取る時
to不定詞=まだできていない事を表す、未来志向、個別的事例
ing動名詞=簡単にできる事を表す、過去思考、一般的事例
       S V O to不定詞はある、S V O doingしか駄目なものもある(enjoy/dislike等)

■不定詞(infinitive:インフィニティブ)と動名詞(gerund:ジェランド)で意味が変わる
不定詞と動名詞の両方を目的語にとり、意味も同じになる動詞は、attempt, begin, bother, cannot bear, cease, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer, startなど一般的
不定詞と動名詞の両方を目的語にとることができるが意味が異なる動詞は、stop, forget, remember, regret, tryなど特殊

I forgot making dinner.  『私は食事を作ったことを忘れてた』
I forgot to make dinner. 『私は食事を作るの忘れてた』

I remember meeting Tom. 『私はトムに会ったことを覚えている』
Remember to Tom tonight. 『今晩、トムに会うのを覚えていてください』

I regret leaving my home. 『私は家を出たことを後悔している』
I regret to leave my home. 『残念ながら私は家を出なければならない』

He tried opening the door. 『彼は、ためにしドアを開けてみた』
He tried to open the door. 『彼は、ドアを開けようとした(実際にしたかどうかは不明)』

need to check 調べる必要がある
need checking 調べられる必要がある=need to be checked

Go on to read. ~し始める
Go on reading. ~し続ける

I stopped to smoke. ~するために立ち止まる
I stopped smoking. ~することを止める

■動名詞しか取らない動詞
// 通常considerは動名詞のみ取る
We have to consider delaying our trip.  旅行延期を考慮する必要がある
We have to consider to delay our travel.  (×間違い)長期旅行を延期するために、(何かを)考慮する必要がある(to不定詞の場合は目的語が不足)

// SuggestはSVOO文型がないので要注意(動名詞を取る、あるいはthat)
Some doctors suggest drinking milk for ulcers. 通常suggestは動名詞のみ取る
I suggested to him that we should join the party. あるいはthat
 (×間違い)I suggested to him to wear warmer clothes. (私は彼にもっと暖かい服を着るように勧めた)

// 動詞によりS V O to不定詞もある?調査必要
 動詞例)advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, enable, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, help, invite, mean, order, permit, persuade, recommend, remind, teach, tell, want, warn, would hate, would like, would love, would prefer

I recommend that you read the book.
She recommended the restaurant to me.

///////////////
//覚えたいリスト
///////////////
 admit doing
 advise doing
 allow doing
 appreciate doing
avoid doing
 complete doing
consider doing
delay doing
deny doing
detest doing (憎む)
dislike doing
enjoy doing
escape doing
finish doing
 forbid doing
give up doing
 help doing
can't help doing
imagine doing
 imply doing
keep doing
 mind doing
 miss doing
 permit doing
practice = practise doing
put off = postpone doing
 quit doing
recall doing (思い出す)
 recommend doing
repeat doing
resist doing
 resume doing
stop doing
suggest doing

//フルリスト?
abandon, abhor, abolish, abominate, accept, accompany, admire, admit,  adore, advise, advocate, allow, anticipate, appreciate, attend, attribute, avoid,  back, ban, bar, begrudge, break off, cannot help, (~せずにはおれない) celebrate, cherish, commemorate, commend, compare, complete, conceal, condone, connote, contemplate, countenance, criticize, curse, cut out, debate, defend, defer, delay, denote, deny,  deplore, deprecate, despair, despise, detest, disclaim, discontinue, discountenance, discuss, disguise, dislike, dispute, disregard, dodge, drop, eliminate, emphasize, end, endanger, endorese, enjoy,  ensure, entail, envisage(= to picture in the mind as a future possibility; imagine), envy, grudge, escape, excuse, explain, face, facilitate, fancy,  favour, finish, forbid, foreshadow, forfeit, forgive, forsee, forswear, funk =(avoid because of fear),
give over, give up,  glorify, ignore, imitate, impede, imply, include, intimate, involve, justify, knock off, lay off, legitimize, loathe, mention, mind, miss, necessitate, obviate, oppose, organize, overlook, overprize, overrule, overshadow, pardon, permit, picture, postpone=put off, practice,  praise, precipitate, preclude, predict, prescribe, prevent, prize, prohibit, query, question, quit, recall, recollect, record, recount, rectify, register, reject, relish, repent, repent, report,  represent, represent, resent, resist, resume, resume, ridicule, ridicule, risk, risk, rule out, sacrifice, sacrifice, sanction, save, shirk, shun, signify, simulate, skip, spoil, square, stand, stop=quit=leave off, stress, study, substantiate, suggest, support, survive, tolerate, treat, undervalue, value, veto, view, visualize, welcome (= receive the idea of ...), withstand

//動名詞を取る前置詞付きの動詞
accuse of, adjust to, agree with, apologize for, approve of, ask about, ask for, begin by, believe in, be used to, blame for, care for, carry on, complain about, concentrate on, congratulate on, consist of, cope with, decide against, decide for, depend on, die of, dream about / of, escape from, feel like, forgive for, give up, insist on, keep on, look forward to, object to, pay for, prevent sb. from, protect from, put off, rely on, spend money on, spend time on, succeed in, suspect of, take part in, talk about / of, thank for, think of, use for, warn against, worry about

■不定詞しか目的語にとらない動詞
afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, attempt, be determined, beg, care, choose, claim, condescend, consent, dare (原形不定詞も取る), decide, demand, deserve, determine, endeavour, expect, fail, guarantee, happen, have, help (原形不定詞も取る), hesitate, hope, learn, long, manage, mean, need (原形不定詞も取る), neglect, offer, ought, plan, prepare, pretend, proceed, promise, refuse, resolve, seem, stop, swear, tend, threaten, trouble, undertake, used, volunteer, vow, want, wish, would hate, would like, would love, would prefer

■動名詞・分詞の表現
it goes without saying that s v  sがvするのは言うまでも無い
busy doing  するのに忙しい
spend time/money doing  するのに時間/お金を使う
have trouble/difficulty doing  するのに苦労する
feel like doing  したい気がする
it is no use doing  しても無駄である
worth doing  する価値がある

■知覚動詞 + O + do/doing/done
to不定詞を取らない

知覚動詞+目的語+原形不定詞の場合
 I saw the girl cross the street. 私は女の子が通りを横切るのを見ました(終了した動作)
知覚動詞+目的語+現在分詞の場合
 I saw the girl crossing the street.私は女の子が通りを横切っているのを見ました(進行中の動作)
知覚動詞+目的語+過去分詞の場合
 I saw the girl crossed the street.私は女の子が通りを横切ったのを見ました(完了や受動を表す)

//目的格補語に原形不定詞を用いるもの I felt my fear rise.
 feel
 notice
 see
 look at
 watch
 observe
 hear
 listen to

//目的格補語に現在分詞を用いるもの I heard a bird singing.
 feel
 perceive
 notice
 imagine
 see
 look at
 watch
 observe
 catch
 find
 discover
 hear
 listen to
 smell

//目的格補語に過去分詞を用いるもの I heard my name called.
 feel
 see
 find
 discover
 hear

■使役動詞 + 人 + do/done
let / make / have / get(get 人 to do) / help(help 人 to doでも同じ意味)
let+目的語+原形不定詞(本人の希望に応じて~をさせる) He doesn't let her drive.
make+目的語+原形不定詞(強制的に~をさせる) What made you think so ?
make+目的語+形容詞 The news made me happy.
make+目的語+過去分詞 I made myself understood in English.
have+目的語+原形不定詞 We had him report.
have+目的語+過去分詞 I had my hair cut.(私は髪を切ってもらいました)
get+目的語+to不定詞 We got the doctor to come.(私たちは医者に来てもらった)
get+目的語+過去分詞 I got my shoes polished.(私は靴を磨いてもらいました)
help+目的語+原形不定詞(to不定詞)She helped her mother water the garden.

■Subject-Verb Agreement
主語と動詞の一致:三単現、意味上で主語が三単現かどうかで動詞にsを付けるかどうか判断していることが下記URLから分かる
https://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/subjectVerbAgree.asp

■不規則変化動詞
arise arose arisen
be was, were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bite bit bitten
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
get got got, gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
lose lost lost
make made made
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
quit quit, quitted quit, quitted
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawn, sawed
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn, sewed
shake shook shaken
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
split split split
spread spread spread
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
swear swore sworn
swim swam swum
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
win won won
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withdrawn
withstand withstood withstood
write wrote written
undertake undertook undertaken

その中で重要なヤツ
https://note.com/evinet_biz/n/nc2aa819f6782

■英語で何と言う?
三単現のs(The s in the third person singular present tense)
現在分詞-ing(present participle)
過去分詞(past participle)パーティスィポー

動名詞(gerund)ジェランド
不定詞(infinitive)インフィニティブ

現在形(Simple Present)
現在進行形 (present continuous tense / present progressive form)
現在完了形 (Present Perfect Tense)

過去形(simple past)
過去完了形(Past Perfect Tense)
過去完了進行形(Past Perfect Continuous Tense)

未来形(Simple Future)
未来進行形(future continuous tense)
未来完了進行形(future perfect continuous)

投稿者 funa : AM12:10 | 英語のコツ - Tips | コメント (1) | トラックバック (0)


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